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“造星”大户房地产,为何“星辉”渐黯?

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 红木家具涨价潮或顺延至相关概念股 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

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The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

No. The much-hyped US electric carmaker once promised to make 400,000 of its new dream machines in 2018. Its latest production targets imply 200,000-300,000. But serious glitches in battery production have meant a slow start, and Tesla’s record is not good. With Tesla yet to show it can wean itself off constant infusions of Wall Street cash, 2018 cold be a make or break year.
In addition to WeChat's core private and group messaging functions, users can also find new contacts by using the application's Drift Bottle function, where a user records a message and sends it out to see in a virtual bottle for a stranger to pick up and respond. Its Look Around function, similar to some mobile dating applications, allows users to browse the profiles of other users who are in close proximity. It also has a function called Moments that allows users to share photo albums publicly with groups of contacts, much like photo-sharing application Instagram.
现金全款购房者。难以取悦的贷款人。暴涨的价格。匮乏的挂牌信息。这些现实,都困扰着购房者,使找房子的过程让人倍受打击。不幸的是,在新的一年,购房者们可能依旧需要在卖方市场里打拼。
Interestingly, a survey found Beijing was thought to be the most congested city in China, among 31.8 percent of respondents, followed by Zhengzhou at 8.8 percent.
我对事物持悲观态度
Whether Russia, one of 15 successor states to the USSR, which broke up in 1991, is still a genuine world power in 2015 is open to question.
The relocation is also part of the integration plan for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei cluster, which aims to ease congestion in the capital and achieve more balanced development in the region.

尽管很多人总把保时捷与纯性能车联系在一起,但近年来保时捷扩大了他们的阵容,包括帕纳梅拉,即为上图的豪华车型,除此外还有卡宴和小卡宴SUV。根据多数评论家,帕纳梅拉不仅继承了保时捷强大的性能,还满足了使用者对高端内置和联网特性的需求。
Their positional matchups with both Cleveland and Boston now look much more palatable.
这些弊端是很现实的,但是也有很多方法来回避它们。比如说,你可以利用你的谋生工作向雇主展示你努力工作的诚意。并且你也可以在工作之余继续找其他的好工作。
China's property companies have been escalating promotional efforts and cutting prices in a bid to maintain sales volumes.
The pickup in consumption in turn will entice businesses to hire and invest more to keep up with rising sales. The result: The U.S. is likely to grow more than 3% for the first time since 2005.

Footnotes

  • LED市场变数多 企业下半年成长待观察
  • 截至德葡之战,本届世界杯已经结束了12场比赛,场均进球3.42个。预计尼日利亚对阵伊朗的比赛进球数将拉低这个统计,不过,只要本场比赛或随后的美加之战能够斩获至少一球,世界杯就会迎来场均进球三粒的第六天。历史上,平均达到如此进球数的还要追溯到1958年瑞典世界杯,也是贝利横空出世的一届。其中,12支球队在仅仅35场比赛中,场均进球3.6个。

Until a couple of games ago, Stephen Curry really hadn't thought much about making more NBA history.
In 2015, the number of migrant residents living in Shanghai dropped for the first time in the past 15 years, Shanghai Television reported Monday.
[ri'septiv]
今日,麦高恩在杂志Sunday Times Magazine上对性侵维权运动做出不雅评论,头一天布雷特·卡瓦诺法官刚在最高法院中宣誓就职,并于当天否认了性侵控告。
But the runaway winner was Ford CEO Mark Fields, who began the year with the depressing news that his company was “transitioning from an auto company to an auto company and a mobility company”. He then went on to declare: “Heritage is history with a future.” He was so chuffed with this, he said it more than once. On hearing it repeated, I’ve concluded it is less gnomic than downright moronic. Mr Fields is thus my new Chief Obfuscation Champion.
After Zhou contaminated the water, one of Zhou's classmates surnamed Tang noticed that the water coming out of the dispenser was milky and had a pungent scent.

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References

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